A lot has been said and written on the possible knowledge of America before Christopher Columbus trips.
..... In the official history, although the erudites affirm to have an opening position and that they don't oppose to such a possibility, systematically they deny the evidences that this can have happened, and with very nonscientific arguments as: "it cannot be", "there are no proofs", "it is false ", "it is not believable", "there are no arguments to confirm it", "they weren't developed, neither had the knowledge", etc., etc.
..... But in spite of these anti-scientific postures, that are argued but not proven, there are investigators that have been able to accumulate and present evidences and proofs of what we can call "Prehistoric Globalization."
..... After my discovery of the existence of carved stones with Semitic writings, of presumably cananian origin, in the Argentinean Patagonia, I began to investigate the possibility of old transoceanic sailings. It was time to apply all the knowledge that I had acquired during my act as cartographer, years ago, in the Naval Hydrographic Service in the Argentine Army, applying them to the investigation of old maps. A hard aim with no very promising results, knowing that copies of old maps aren't easy to find. I could confirm that after a long and useless pilgrimage on libraries and map libraries in search of this material.
..... Although I thought that all about old maps had already been studied and squeezed, I needed to find a fact, a hint, an indication to explain about possible antique sailing's.
..... Before getting into the topic, I want to advertise the readers that due to the variety in different authors to express many of the used names, I've taken one of those ways arbitrarily, since one form isn't correct than other, in spite of some linguists who believe to have true possession.
..... Professor Paul Gallez unequivocally demonstrates that the continental extension of China towards south in old maps as in Ptolemy's of Hamer (Martellus) belongs to South America identifying coasts, rivers, mountains, and carrying out a net of distortion.
Another investigator, Dr. Dyck Edgar Ibarra Grasso discovers that the Sinus Magnus or Megas Kolpios (Great Gulf) that appears east of old maps isn't another thing but the Pacific Ocean. We then had South America called Oriental Indies or Southern Indies

Picture: Rivers of America in the map of Enricus Martellus 1489 - in maps published by Paul Gallez


..... These discoveries made me think that who had made such cartographic work on South America in old maps, could not omit knowing the existence of the center and north of America. It was evident that if the extension of China towards south was South America, the American continent had been swept and was known, how is it possible that they didn't know North America. But if they knew it, where was it? The answer is that in the maps there was a landslide of the American continent.
..... In the case of South America the landslide would fall in the ocean, so it wasn't a problem to represent it. That didn't happen with North America because due to the landslide of the continent, it was upon Asia, and they should opt to represent one or other way, or to mix them. But in this case the geographers found another solution.
..... There were three precolumbus maps, published by the Prof. Gallez that shook my attention

    These are the precolumbus maps:
  • 1440- Nova cosmographía per totum circulum - Sheet Nº X III Dana Benett Durand.
  • 1448 - Worldmap of Andreas Walsperger - Sheet Nº XV Dana Benett Durand.
  • 1470 - Map of the Stiftsbibliothek of Zeitz - Sheet Nº XVI Dana Benett Durand.

..... I'll talk about my discovery of the existence of America in famous precolumbus maps, that shouldn't be confused with the discovery of maps of unknown origin.
..... Taking as example the map Per Totum Circulum 1440, reconstructed by Dana Benett Durand, it's the one that more toponymy contains, except for some occasional individual reference, naming them by its dates. Treating them one by one wouldn't be worthwhile because they lack of fundamental differences and it would be very extensive and possibly doubtful.
..... These circular maps are identified one by one, it wouldn't be worthwhile since they lack of fundamental differences and it would be very extensive and possibly doubtful.
..... These circular maps are identified as of Arab origin. But the question fits: From whom did they inherit them? The fact that the same ones are centered in Jerusalem and should be read the other way round, with north underneath, gives us an indication of their antiquity and middle east origin.
..... In two of these maps we find a reading that says they've been drawn in 180º according to what Ptolemy's geography "says", in his expression "says" we find Galilean's tragedy, what is obligatory to accept, shouldn't be doubted nor changed. It's important to clarify that Ptolemy's of that period, as Hamer 1478 had clearly 180º. But it isn't certain neither exact that the earth was considered flat by the geographers previous to XVI century.
..... The necessity to put this explanation in times of the inquisition "as Ptolemy says", demonstrates that they were not convinced of what they did, but that they were forced to follow the Roman obscurantist ideas of geographer Claude Ptolemy that were still effective, but separated and swept away from the Greek science of Pythagoras, Demócrito, Hiparco, Eratosthenes, Aristarco, and many others.
..... Although Ptolemy writes his works in Greek and not in Latin, it's evident that he was educated in the "Roman Obscurantism School" although he names them, he seemed to ignore who Alexander the Great, Diogenes, Dioscorus, Flaccus, Philemon, Theophilus were, or others, just calling them "a certain man.... "
..... Redondo doesn't clarify the difference between a circle and a sphere. The sphere is an object of three dimensions that represented on the plain of two dimensions it lacks perspective that can identify it and it can only be delineated as a circle, in the case of these maps it isn't the representation of a plain inside a circle but of a half sphere.
..... The circles that surrounds the center of the map and the lines that crosses them correspond to parallel (circles) and meridians (lines) (see image), of the type of a polar projection, not centered in the pole, but centered in Jerusalem, the circles at 30º, 60º, and 90º, indicate the curve of the earth, the 90º one that skirts the map indicates the radius of the half sphere and as Ptolemy says two radios of 90º forms a diameter of 180º.
...... This clarifies that in these maps the shape of the half sphere, is 180º. Being this also confirmed by the indication of the poles and the lands that are lost in the circular horizon evidencing the spherical origin of the same ones, proving the existence of terrestrial globes in the antiquity.
..... The knowledge of spherical shape of the earth is known from the antiquity. Eratosthenes in the III century BC made a quite approximate measurement of its contour, and the Greek Atlas statue with the spherical world on his shoulders, not only demonstrates the knowledge of the spherical shape of the earth, but rather demonstrates that they could well either carve or draw their well-known world on a sphere and then incorporate the places that sailors were adding as result of their trips. It would be enough then that any artist sat down in front of any point of the sphere and copy what he saw on a plain, with the distortion that produces the curve, and with the characteristic imprecision and deformations of old maps.
.... Nobody can question that the cultures of those times were perfectly qualified technical and artistically to achieve this, that would discard the hypothesis so diffused by some authors, on the participation of extraterrestrial projections taken from space.
..... To confirm this its enough to take a look at a current terrestrial globe with Jerusalem on the center, to see how the type of projection developed in these maps coincide, to realize that the knowledge of the earth they had in the antiquity was sufficient to draw these maps, where they had to move or put on top the two terrestrial hemispheres to obtain the 180º that at that time it was demanded. Looking at the actual projection of the earth with the vertical in Jerusalem we see that Australia and America don't appear because they are on the other side of the terrestrial sphere and they are exactly the lands that are moved and placed upon each other in old projections to obtain the 180º


Picture: Projection of the terrestrial sphere centered in Jerusalem compared with the map of Pertotum Circulum 1440
<< Click here to see the animation >>

..... It is possible that Ptolemy didn't only correct Marino de Tiro reducing him, but rather he was the first one in locating the poles in the axis with the sense of rotation of the earth in agreement with time schedule, as we see it in the different reconstructions of his map that begins from an extreme point of west of Africa in the Fortunate Islands with the meridian Nº 0º till the other end in Catigara with 180º, as fixed points for any map. So we can show that the modality of centering the maps in Jerusalem or any other side is previous to Ptolemy, and that although some geographers continued using it, it disappeared.
..... It is possible that the maps drawn by Hiparco, Eratosthenes, Marino de Tiro, Estrabon, Pomponio, Mela etc., were made with the projection type centered in Jerusalem, where they show the same deviation as the maps of the XV century copied by German monks, a Caspian Sea seemingly deviated towards the north and with an oceanic exit. Since it hasn't been possible to find and know more about these old authors' maps; probably the reconstructions of the same ones were carried out mistakenly with a later criterion imposed by Ptolemy.
..... I imagine the problem the geographers had, in placing the 360º of a sphere in the 180º of a half sphere represented in a circle. In these maps the adopted solution appears. Rotating and moving the semi sphere (hemisphere) not visible in this projection with the center in Jerusalem and putting it upon another moving America approximately 130 º and putting North America upon Asia, as in the reconstruction of Zeitz's 1470 map carried out with a current map.
..... In this animated demonstration on how the landslides were carried out, with the map of the Stiftsbibliothek of Zeitz 1470, we can see how America is separated from Asia again. Australia goes from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean taking its correct place and New Guinea Papua that appears like a great peninsula, is separated from South America to become an island again.

Picture: Outline of the map of Zeitz's Library.
Picture: Reconstruction of Zeitz's map
starting from a current map
<< click here to see correspondent animation>>

.....These landslides that complicate the interpretation of these maps, are demonstrated easily because the Meótica Lagoon, which can be perfectly identified in the Black Sea without a name, appears again more to the north as "See Meotiden" and together with the Tanais region (Don River) "Tanaiberg" they are found in Siberia projected 90º in direction to the north pole, and it is explained that it's a very wide Country in which there are no constructions and that their population are nomads and barbarians and that they weren't conquered by Alexander the Great neither by the Romans "Das lant der Sachien ist gar ain weitt lant und ist nit baut und ist ain poesz volck daz sy weder Allexander noch den Romer hye unter tang wurden". This reading is attached with an illustration that shows King Scythia, with his stores, typical of the Asian nomad's tribes and his famous and feared chivalry. In another reading prays "Dy leut von Scithien habent kain pleibentenstat zyehent hyn und her von keiten" that means that the Scythians are nomads and they don't stay in one place but rather they move continually from one place to another being that the Tartar-Mongolian's normal way of life.
.....In the past the term Scythia was used to denominate those that inhabited at the east of the Germanic tribes, up to the confines of Siberia like theTartars and Mongolian.
..... In is this way it can be demonstrated that if Siberia is projected in apparent direction to the North Pole, the lands that are shown at the extreme east as Indies or Poriana belong to the Oriental Indies and they don't assimilate with Siberia and they are America.

Map Pertotum Circulum 1440, Europe and Siberia sectors. (Make click to enlarge the image)

..... Together with the American continent, Australia is moved, remaining located at the west of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean as the island of "Trivalla" 1440.
..... At south of Africa the South Pole is shown as "Polus Antarticus". A special care should be taken with the reading below that belongs to the south of Africa and mentions torrid regions like the Kalahari.
..... Under Australia appears "Mer Von Mittentag" as the Midday Sea and then "ist unwonhaft von grosz hiez wegen und hat nur ain insel und in dem mer seind vill grausamer merr wunder" what means: "it is uninhabitable because of the great heat, there is only one island, full of amazing monsters in the sea" it surely refers to the heat of the Australian desert and the whales, whale sharks, white sharks etc. that surrounds them.
..... Undoubtedly it is not known if this landslide were carried out in the old originals or in the German Monks copies.
..... In these three maps Japan appears with the name of "Dicolzy" Island, Marco Polo first names an island called Ciampagu and the geographer Fra Mauro places it in his world map of 1459 in front of the coast of China in a place that would correspond to Japan; it is noticed that in the map there wasn't place to put Cipango at 1500 miles in the ocean as Marco Polo says. But there is no coincidence on what Polo says about Cipango.
..... Although in two maps 1448 - 1470 there aren't names for Korea, in the 1440 one, Korea is placed correctly, in Asia and before the Southern Indies (America) and it appears with the name of "Ulkania" with its mountainous chains.
..... Amazingly these maps demonstrate us that the Continent Island of Australia was known, circumnavigated and mapped centuries before its supposed discovery, and that together with America it was moved about 130º west leaving it in the Atlantic ocean, in front of the western coasts of Africa. It appears as an enormous island, that couldn't be discovered and less mapped in that region, since it doesn't exist in that place, and is only a result of a landslide that European geographers ignored, in order to draw a map that agreed with the Ptolemaic geography of the time that consisted in a maximum of 180º.