lot has been said and written on the possible knowledge of America before
Christopher Columbus trips.
..... In the official history, although
the erudites affirm to have an opening position and that they don't
oppose to such a possibility, systematically they deny the evidences
that this can have happened, and with very nonscientific arguments as:
"it cannot be", "there are no proofs", "it
is false ", "it is not believable", "there are no
arguments to confirm it", "they weren't developed, neither
had the knowledge", etc., etc.
..... But in spite of these anti-scientific
postures, that are argued but not proven, there are investigators that
have been able to accumulate and present evidences and proofs of what
we can call "Prehistoric Globalization."
..... After my discovery of the existence
of carved stones with Semitic writings, of presumably cananian origin,
in the Argentinean Patagonia, I began to investigate the possibility
of old transoceanic sailings. It was time to apply all the knowledge
that I had acquired during my act as cartographer, years ago, in the
Naval Hydrographic Service in the Argentine Army, applying them to the
investigation of old maps. A hard aim with no very promising results,
knowing that copies of old maps aren't easy to find. I could confirm
that after a long and useless pilgrimage on libraries and map libraries
in search of this material.
..... Although I thought that all about
old maps had already been studied and squeezed, I needed to find a fact,
a hint, an indication to explain about possible antique sailing's.
..... Before getting into the topic, I
want to advertise the readers that due to the variety in different authors
to express many of the used names, I've taken one of those ways arbitrarily,
since one form isn't correct than other, in spite of some linguists
who believe to have true possession.
..... Professor Paul Gallez unequivocally
demonstrates that the continental extension of China towards south in
old maps as in Ptolemy's of Hamer (Martellus) belongs to South America
identifying coasts, rivers, mountains, and carrying out a net of distortion.
Another investigator, Dr. Dyck Edgar Ibarra Grasso discovers that the
Sinus Magnus or Megas Kolpios (Great Gulf) that appears east of old
maps isn't another thing but the Pacific Ocean. We then had South America
called Oriental Indies or Southern Indies
Rivers of America in the map of Enricus Martellus 1489 - in
maps published by Paul Gallez
ORINOCO RIVER <> 2- AMAZONS RIVER <> 3- TOCANTINS RIVER <> 4-
SAN FRANCISCO RIVER
5- PARANÁ RIVER <> 6- PARAGUAY RIVER <> 7- BLACK RIVER <> 8-
RED RIVER <> 9- CANANEA RIVER
made me think that who had made such cartographic work on South America
in old maps, could not omit knowing the existence of the center and
north of America. It was evident that if the extension of China towards
south was South America, the American continent had been swept and was
known, how is it possible that they didn't know North America. But if
they knew it, where was it? The answer is that in the maps there was
a landslide of the American continent.
..... In the case of South America the
landslide would fall in the ocean, so it wasn't a problem to represent
it. That didn't happen with North America because due to the landslide
of the continent, it was upon Asia, and they should opt to represent
one or other way, or to mix them. But in this case the geographers found
..... There were three precolumbus maps,
published by the Prof. Gallez that shook my attention
These are the precolumbus
- 1440- Nova cosmographía
per totum circulum - Sheet Nº X III Dana Benett Durand.
- 1448 - Worldmap
of Andreas Walsperger - Sheet Nº XV Dana Benett Durand.
- 1470 - Map of
the Stiftsbibliothek of Zeitz - Sheet Nº XVI Dana Benett Durand.
I'll talk about my discovery of the existence of America in famous
precolumbus maps, that shouldn't be confused with the discovery of maps
of unknown origin.
..... Taking as example the map Per Totum
Circulum 1440, reconstructed by Dana Benett Durand, it's the one that
more toponymy contains, except for some occasional individual reference,
naming them by its dates. Treating them one by one wouldn't be worthwhile
because they lack of fundamental differences and it would be very extensive
and possibly doubtful.
..... These circular maps are identified
one by one, it wouldn't be worthwhile since they lack of fundamental
differences and it would be very extensive and possibly doubtful.
..... These circular maps are identified
as of Arab origin. But the question fits: From whom did they inherit
them? The fact that the same ones are centered in Jerusalem and should
be read the other way round, with north underneath, gives us an indication
of their antiquity and middle east origin.
..... In two of these maps we find a reading
that says they've been drawn in 180º according to what Ptolemy's
geography "says", in his expression "says" we find
Galilean's tragedy, what is obligatory to accept, shouldn't be doubted
nor changed. It's important to clarify that Ptolemy's of that period,
as Hamer 1478 had clearly 180º. But it isn't certain neither exact
that the earth was considered flat by the geographers previous to XVI
..... The necessity to put this explanation
in times of the inquisition "as Ptolemy says", demonstrates
that they were not convinced of what they did, but that they were forced
to follow the Roman obscurantist ideas of geographer Claude Ptolemy
that were still effective, but separated and swept away from the Greek
science of Pythagoras, Demócrito, Hiparco, Eratosthenes, Aristarco,
and many others.
..... Although Ptolemy writes his works
in Greek and not in Latin, it's evident that he was educated in the
"Roman Obscurantism School" although he names them, he seemed
to ignore who Alexander the Great, Diogenes, Dioscorus, Flaccus, Philemon,
Theophilus were, or others, just calling them "a certain man....
..... Redondo doesn't clarify the difference
between a circle and a sphere. The sphere is an object of three dimensions
that represented on the plain of two dimensions it lacks perspective
that can identify it and it can only be delineated as a circle, in the
case of these maps it isn't the representation of a plain inside a circle
but of a half sphere.
..... The circles that surrounds the center
of the map and the lines that crosses them correspond to parallel (circles)
and meridians (lines) (see image),
of the type of a polar projection, not centered in the pole, but centered
in Jerusalem, the circles at 30º, 60º, and 90º, indicate
the curve of the earth, the 90º one that skirts the map indicates
the radius of the half sphere and as Ptolemy says two radios of 90º
forms a diameter of 180º.
...... This clarifies that in these maps
the shape of the half sphere, is 180º. Being this also confirmed
by the indication of the poles and the lands that are lost in the circular
horizon evidencing the spherical origin of the same ones, proving the
existence of terrestrial globes in the antiquity.
..... The knowledge of spherical shape
of the earth is known from the antiquity. Eratosthenes in the III century
BC made a quite approximate measurement of its contour, and the Greek
Atlas statue with the spherical world on his shoulders, not only demonstrates
the knowledge of the spherical shape of the earth, but rather demonstrates
that they could well either carve or draw their well-known world on
a sphere and then incorporate the places that sailors were adding as
result of their trips. It would be enough then that any artist sat down
in front of any point of the sphere and copy what he saw on a plain,
with the distortion that produces the curve, and with the characteristic
imprecision and deformations of old maps.
.... Nobody can question that the cultures
of those times were perfectly qualified technical and artistically to
achieve this, that would discard the hypothesis so diffused by some
authors, on the participation of extraterrestrial projections taken
..... To confirm this its enough to take
a look at a current terrestrial globe with Jerusalem on the center,
to see how the type of projection developed in these maps coincide,
to realize that the knowledge of the earth they had in the antiquity
was sufficient to draw these maps, where they had to move or put on
top the two terrestrial hemispheres to obtain the 180º that at
that time it was demanded. Looking at the actual projection of the earth
with the vertical in Jerusalem we see that Australia and America don't
appear because they are on the other side of the terrestrial sphere
and they are exactly the lands that are moved and placed upon each other
in old projections to obtain the 180º
Projection of the terrestrial sphere centered in Jerusalem compared
with the map of Pertotum Circulum 1440
Click here to see the animation >>
It is possible
that Ptolemy didn't only correct Marino de Tiro reducing him, but rather
he was the first one in locating the poles in the axis with the sense
of rotation of the earth in agreement with time schedule, as we see
it in the different reconstructions of his map that begins from an extreme
point of west of Africa in the Fortunate Islands with the meridian Nº
0º till the other end in Catigara with 180º, as fixed points
for any map. So we can show that the modality of centering the maps
in Jerusalem or any other side is previous to Ptolemy, and that although
some geographers continued using it, it disappeared.
..... It is possible that the maps drawn
by Hiparco, Eratosthenes, Marino de Tiro, Estrabon, Pomponio, Mela etc.,
were made with the projection type centered in Jerusalem, where they
show the same deviation as the maps of the XV century copied by German
monks, a Caspian Sea seemingly deviated towards the north and with an
oceanic exit. Since it hasn't been possible to find and know more about
these old authors' maps; probably the reconstructions of the same ones
were carried out mistakenly with a later criterion imposed by Ptolemy.
..... I imagine the problem the geographers
had, in placing the 360º of a sphere in the 180º of a half
sphere represented in a circle. In these maps the adopted solution appears.
Rotating and moving the semi sphere (hemisphere) not visible in this
projection with the center in Jerusalem and putting it upon another
moving America approximately 130 º and putting North America upon
Asia, as in the reconstruction of Zeitz's 1470 map carried out with
a current map.
..... In this animated demonstration on
how the landslides were carried out, with the map of the Stiftsbibliothek
of Zeitz 1470, we can see how America is separated from Asia again.
Australia goes from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean taking its correct
place and New Guinea Papua that appears like a great peninsula, is separated
from South America to become an island again.
Outline of the map of Zeitz's Library.
Reconstruction of Zeitz's map
starting from a current map
click here to see correspondent animation>>
landslides that complicate the interpretation of these maps, are demonstrated
easily because the Meótica Lagoon, which can be perfectly identified
in the Black Sea without a name, appears again more to the north as
"See Meotiden" and together with the Tanais region (Don
River) "Tanaiberg" they are found in Siberia projected
90º in direction to the north pole, and it is explained that it's a
very wide Country in which there are no constructions and that their
population are nomads and barbarians and that they weren't conquered
by Alexander the Great neither by the Romans "Das lant der Sachien
ist gar ain weitt lant und ist nit baut und ist ain poesz volck daz
sy weder Allexander noch den Romer hye unter tang wurden". This
reading is attached with an illustration that shows King Scythia, with
his stores, typical of the Asian nomad's tribes and his famous and feared
chivalry. In another reading prays "Dy leut von Scithien habent
kain pleibentenstat zyehent hyn und her von keiten" that means
that the Scythians are nomads and they don't stay in one place but rather
they move continually from one place to another being that the Tartar-Mongolian's
normal way of life.
.....In the past the term Scythia was used
to denominate those that inhabited at the east of the Germanic tribes,
up to the confines of Siberia like theTartars and Mongolian.
..... In is this way it can be demonstrated
that if Siberia is projected in apparent direction to the North Pole,
the lands that are shown at the extreme east as Indies or Poriana belong
to the Oriental Indies and they don't assimilate with Siberia and they
Pertotum Circulum 1440, Europe and Siberia sectors. (Make click
to enlarge the image)
Together with the American continent, Australia is moved, remaining
located at the west of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean as the island of
..... At south of Africa the South Pole
is shown as "Polus Antarticus". A special care
should be taken with the reading below that belongs to the south of
Africa and mentions torrid regions like the Kalahari.
..... Under Australia appears "Mer
Von Mittentag" as the Midday Sea and then "ist
unwonhaft von grosz hiez wegen und hat nur ain insel und in dem mer
seind vill grausamer merr wunder" what means: "it
is uninhabitable because of the great heat, there is only one island,
full of amazing monsters in the sea" it surely refers to the heat
of the Australian desert and the whales, whale sharks, white sharks
etc. that surrounds them.
..... Undoubtedly it is not known if this
landslide were carried out in the old originals or in the German Monks
..... In these three maps Japan appears
with the name of "Dicolzy" Island, Marco Polo
first names an island called Ciampagu and the geographer Fra Mauro places
it in his world map of 1459 in front of the coast of China in a place
that would correspond to Japan; it is noticed that in the map there
wasn't place to put Cipango at 1500 miles in the ocean as Marco Polo
says. But there is no coincidence on what Polo says about Cipango.
..... Although in two maps 1448 - 1470
there aren't names for Korea, in the 1440 one, Korea is placed correctly,
in Asia and before the Southern Indies (America) and it appears with
the name of "Ulkania" with its mountainous chains.
..... Amazingly these maps demonstrate
us that the Continent Island of Australia was known, circumnavigated
and mapped centuries before its supposed discovery, and that together
with America it was moved about 130º west leaving it in the Atlantic
ocean, in front of the western coasts of Africa. It appears as an enormous
island, that couldn't be discovered and less mapped in that region,
since it doesn't exist in that place, and is only a result of a landslide
that European geographers ignored, in order to draw a map that agreed
with the Ptolemaic geography of the time that consisted in a maximum