admirable that in these maps "Troya" is perfectly
located. A mythical city thought invented by Homero and was rediscovered
in 1868 by Heinrich Schliemann.
The existence of the monumental "Petra" was
ignored and was lost in times of these maps and was discovered centuries
after these maps were made in 1812.
...... Also in the right place, at the southeast
bank of the Dead Sea, the biblical "Sodoma"
is located. In 1924 the ruins of the population Bab Edh Dhra were discovered,
lately in that region the ruins of another population called Numeira
have been discovered (and dug in 1975), but investigations and dateline
studies carried out recently, they presume to be the Biblical Sodoma
and Gomorra (the information is reserved and to confirm).
..... With an illustration that represents
a ship in the mountains, we have the legend "Dy Arch Noe
in Armenia auf dem perg Ararat" that means "Persia
Ararat Mounts where the Arch of Noe can be found."
Pertotum Circulum 1440, Europe and Siberia sector. (Click to enlarge
would be important to investigate the true origin of these maps that
denote antiquity knowledge of toponymy, and where we notice the absence
of toponymy of places already very well-known and considered very important
for the time in that they were drawn, that demonstrates that they derive
from an older geography or maps, as the case of the Ptolemy maps that
were drawn in the XIII century, from an older geography.
..... In these maps there is surely registered
data of old places, which are still ignored.
..... The discovery of America in these
maps shows us a single answer: Our known History suffers enormous errors,
and it also fills us with a lot of questions, most of them possibly
still don't have any answer, and puts us on a long and new course.
..... To face this situation we must begin
a deep and serious historical and archaeological revisionism, sometimes
keeping in mind the diffusiveness, so long and mistakenly attacked and
denied, sometimes by mistake, ignorance or indecency, as the only possible
way to learn the knowledge of "TRUE UNIVERSAL HISTORY."
c There's no doubt that these maps requires a deeper study, especially
regarding their toponymy, since they don't agree with Ptolemy's maps.
But in the mentioned cases it agrees with reality.
..... A mysterious German Brotherhood. This
region doesn't match today's Germany. Looking at old maps I can't ignore
that the authors of some of the maps in history before Christopher Columbus
were influenced by the Germans, Martin Waldseemüller, Martin Behaim,
Henricus Martellus Germanus, Donnus Nicolaus Germanus, Andreas Walsperger,
I also include the anonymous authors of the maps Nova Cosmography 1440
and the map of the Stiftsbibliothek of Zeitz 1470 from the same origin.
All these characters belonged to the Church or close to it. In times
in that the great schism was gestated they suffered this, during Martin
Luther's Reformation. Will this gestation of Church's Reformation influence
on the knowledge managed by the Germans?
..... It can't be avoid thinking how and
from where these German monks acquired these old and mysterious knowledge,
those that categorically aren't from Ptolemy's origin, we don't know
what happened with the used documents, most of them maps or geography,
to carry out these works and we only have left to wonder if the same
are lost in some bookcase, in the library of some monastery, hoping
that someone removes their powder, and discover them to puzzle out their
secrets. If these Germans had so much geographical knowledge why weren't
they the discoverers of America? We'll possibly never know it.
..... Of the four well-known Indies from
antiquity: "India of the Indo", "India of the Ganges",
"extra India Ganges" and "Oriental Indies", these
are the ones that it was believed they were at the extreme end east
of Asia and that in fact, they are America, and they were those that
motivated Christopher Columbus trips. Although as for Columbus as for
all the conquerors these Indies were Western because from Europe they
found them navigating towards west.
.....These Oriental Indies (or Southern)
appear in all antique maps like an extension of China towards the south
called "The Tail of the Dragon". From the Eratóstenes
III century before Christ map, Pomponio Mela and Ptolemy, I century
of our era, Martellus, Nicolás Germanus, until 1492 Martin Behaim's
Globe. From this date on a confused cartographic situation takes place.
The new maps of the discovery appear with two Americas: "Oriental
Indies" together with Asia repeated as "Mondo
Novo", but in fact it's the same region repeated as if
they were different places. Let's take a look at some examples in the
1502 - Cantino
- Nicolás Caneiro
1506 - Martín Waldssemüller
1515 - Schoner
1520 - Pedro Apiano
1522 - Lorenzo Frisio
1532 - Sebastián Munster
this duality disappears, since in 1526 the geographers began to notice
the duality error they return to the precolumbus traditional cartography,
separating progressively the Oriental Indies from Asia and changing
their name for America, we can see examples in the maps of:
1526 - Oroncio
Fineo - F. Melinas
1528 - F. Melinas
1533 - Gotha - Schoner
1542 - C. Vopelius
1554 - Lopo Homen
1562 - G. Gastaldi
1570 - F. Basso
(For the list the
most representative maps were chosen.)
this cartographic modality reaches our days, we continue with the antique
concept of Mondo Novo independent of the Oriental Indies, duplicity
that practically disappeared about forty years after Christopher Columbus.
But the impact and publicity of that time about the discovery and later
on interests left us a real cartography and a mistaken concept to consider
the discovery a simple and sad conquest of well-known lands from antiquity.
Three comparative maps on this topic:
In these three maps, we have an example of the cartographic evolution
from before Christopher Columbus until present time.
..... In the map Nº 1 of Zeitz 1470
we can see how the Oriental Indies (America) begins to separate from
..... Situation that continues until the
supposed discovery of America baptized this way by Martin Waldseemüller
in his map of 1506, but from 1492 the Oriental Indies or "Tail
of the Dragon" appears, and on the other hand the Mondo Novo which
is the same thing, confusion that is maintained for about forty years
where in all maps the two America appears like in the map already mentioned,
or in the Nº 2 of Sebastian Munster 1532 twenty-six years after
in Waldseemüller's map.
..... About forty years after the geographers
realize this duality and they recapture the traditional cartography
used before Columbus, like in map Nº 3 (Johanes Schöner 1533),
where we clearly see America joined to Asia like in the precolumbus
maps. It will be separated progressively until the discovery of the
Strait of Bering, being this modality the one that reaches our days.
..... In this sequence of maps if we eliminate
the map Nº 2 of Sebastian Munster, we can see that map Nº
1 of Zeitz 1470 and map Nº 3 of Johanes Schöner 1533 have
the same cartographic modality, in both the Oriental Indies - America
is joined to Asia.
Leaving out the old "Tail of the Dragon" with its history,
its toponymy and its legends, that are floating, and still trying to
find them a place to locate them in some mythical lost continent and
replacing it with a new Tail of the Dragon baptized America, without
a place for toponymy neither history nor antique legends.
..... These forty years of duality in maps,
created a confusion that impeded to see the reality of a cartographic
continuity, situation that has continued for several centuries, from
Columbus until the present time, causing a great deal of damage to knowledge.
..... It's demonstrated then that America
always existed in maps as Oriental Indies and was well-known and frequented
from the most remote antiquity.
..... It seemed that in 1502 Caneiro, Cantino,
Vespuccio, and others could draw their maps that embraced so many thousands
of kilometers of coast that hadn't been navigated in that time, and
they could hardly have carried out their first Caribbean trips, what
happened later? The cartography couldn't advance or in its defect it
would so but very slowly. Its enough to look at the maps with more than
a hundred years after the supposed discovery and we'll see an improved
Caribbean, the Antilles and the Florida, and the rest?. It seems that
geographers of that time didn't know what to do, and although the cases
were many, let's see five examples:
1542 - Caspar
1556 - Hierónymo Girava
1562 - Giácomo Gastaldi
1571 - Francisco Basso
1574 - Guillo Sanuto
Although they have more toponymy, cartographically don't overcome and
they don't even equal the perfection of Vespuccio, the vignette of the
map of Waldseemüller. It can be seen in these maps, so after the
precolumbus ones, that also were drawn fusing North America with Asia
being South America an extension of China towards south, they simply
made the maps in the same way again as before Columbus, the only difference
with the precolumbus ones is that in these later maps it says "AMERICA",
what confirms the existence of a "Prehistoric Globalization"
..... It should be mentioned that the drawing
of maps in the antiquity, only could be carried out with the data gathered
by navigators, and that the existence of maps previous to Christopher
Columbus proves the existence of old navigators that traveled the world
collecting data to make these maps that were used to complete and draw
the maps in times of the conquest, placing in these maps lands that
they didn't know and they hadn't navigated, many times mistakenly ignoring
those places and possibly also the bad interpretation when copying them.
..... It's evident the annoying task of
gathering pieces of maps (partial maps) from different navigators to
identify them, take them to the same scale, join them, and arm them
as a puzzles, in times that cartography was still unknown, since that
it's appearance can be considered with Gerardo Mercator (Gerard Kremer
1512-94) and would then mark the difference among "Geographer and