the North American coasts are represented vaguely, although these were
discovered and traveled, since Caboto in 1497 discovers and navigates
the coasts of Terranova, the expeditions of Corterreal, and some others,
Columbus travels these coasts 42º north.
..... I should say I find wisely the hypothesis
of Ibarra Grasso about Columbus sailings by the North American coasts.
As he well says we don't have to doubt the Admiral's location ability,
when he says to be at 42º north and he decides to go back because
of the crudeness of winter. Anyone knows what winter can be in New York,
since he is in that latitude. This wouldn't happen in the Caribbean
islands with tropical climate the whole year. The same starry sky that
located him in America also did in Vigo or Barcelona (42ºN).
..... Another reference that leaves us no
doubts is the written testimony left by Brother Bartolomé de
las Casas where he says that he was surprised by the quantity of dead
livestock heads they found. This is impossible in the Caribbean islands
where we don't find livestock or anything similar, but it's truly possible
in the Georgia or Carolina coasts where the bison's of the North American
plains arrived. The skulls with horns of these heads were similar to
those already known in Europe.
..... It would be interesting to be able
to ask Christopher Columbus about his discovery, and as if he had guessed
the question, he left us the answer, in one of his letters.
..... In a conference that Dr. Enrique Mussel,
exposed in the "1º International Seminar of Transoceanic Contacts
before Columbus" taken place in November 2000 in the City La Paz,
Bolivia, transcribes a fragment of a letter sent by Columbus to the
Kings of Spain in 1498.
"..... and to say, respond me, those who read the Greek and
Roman histories, if with such little thing they enlarged their dominion
so largely, as now Your Highness of Spain did with the Indies. This
single island that floats more than seven hundred leagues, Jamaica,
with other seven hundred islands and some parts of mainland, well-known
by the old ones and not unknown, as it's meant by the envious or ignorant....
Christopher Columbus. Texts and complete documents. Consuelo Varela
Edition, Alianza, Madrid 1982, pp. 227.
.....We see how Columbus recognizes that
those lands of America were very well-known by the antiques, calling
ignorant those who denied this reality.
..... But the later sages were very busy
reading about themselves, not reading the antiques, and they reached
the conclusion that Columbus was confused, calling him on one hand The
Great Navigator Genius of the Discovery and contradictorily on the other
hand qualify him like an idiot and ignorant that didn't know where he
was, converting all of this more than a contradiction, in great nonsense.
Columbus didn't imagine that the sages would not read the antiques,
neither would they read his letters that more than that; they were a
confession and then those who read it, couldn't accept and understand
..... The paragraph that matters, demonstrates
that Columbus knew where he went and that he didn't make a mistake,
but rather he arrived where had intended to arrive, not India and Japan
but to those "Oriental Indies" then baptized "America",
in search of the wealth of Marco Polo's Cipan, and Ptolemy Catigara's
gold, endorsed this on the maps drawn by his brother Bartolomé
Columbus in 1503-1505,
de Bartolomé Colón de 1504/5
that were also impossible in that time, with the Isthmus of Panama and
the American coasts of the Pacific where he places Catigara. That demonstrates
that Bartolomé Columbus, locates Catigara in the western coasts
of the Oriental Indies and wasn't mistaken as then the historians supposed.
That map indicates him that he should look for a strait to arrive Catigara's
richness, strait that all looked for desperately until the supposed
Hernando de Magallanes's discovery.
..... The reading of the Don Hernando Columbus's
book, second son of Christopher Columbus contains the right interpretations
that Christopher Columbus made on the antiques; in which he was based
to achieve his encounter of "The Indies" and not "The
India". Interpretations he makes about: Marino de Tiro, Claudio
Ptolemy, Estrabón, Ctesías, Onesícrito, Nearco,
Plinio the Old one, Alfragano, Aristotle, Averroes, Séneca, Solino,
Marco Polo, Juan de Mandeville, Pedro de Aliaco, Pablo Fisico (Paolo
dal Pozzo Toscanelli), etc; that were the Indies beyond the Ganges,
those "Oriental Indies" the same ones that are to the occident
of Europe and therefore he names "Western Indies". I've said
guessed right interpretations since they lead him to good terms, although
then, they didn't understand him.
..... We shouldn't forget that Columbus
on Real Ordinance would be named for life Viceroy of all the lands he
discovered, extensive title to his descendants. Decree that the Crown
didn't think to continue cause that was in charge of the King of Spain
and the official history, not to recognize the arrival of the Admiral
to the continent. Only recognizing The Antilles discovery. They knew
that fulfilling that promise they would transform the Admiral in a more
powerful Viceroy than Spanish Crown itself, with their court, the four
financiers Jew-converted: Luis de Santángel, Juan Cabrero, Alonso
de la Caballería and Gabriel Sánchez. This Viceroyalty
would be mainly reliable to the eyes of the Inquisition.
..... But some mischievous feather wrote
us the comical Queen Isabel La Católica's jewel zeal to finance
Columbus. We can expect anything from History.
..... "Columbus would be for life named
Viceroy of all the lands he discovered, extensive title to his descendants".
That is the reason why Colombus returns alive and chained, he shouldn't
die; they had to negotiate with him the estate of his Viceroy title
that continued in case after his death up to 1786, with his descendants.
..... In 1992 in a titled sample "To
the East by West" realized by the plastic artist Luis Felipe Noé
in Colombia, a portfolio was published where it shows an outline of
how the precolumbus map of Martellus that includes all America was drawn,
we can see it's drawn in a similar form as the one that was used in
the three maps that he discovered 1440, 1448, 1470.
published by the plastic artist Felipe Noé
this publication he makes a very sagacious observation: If Columbus
travels to the Indies like an Ambassador of the Great Khan, why is he
given the Viceroy title?
..... We saw the previous test that Columbus
knew the existence of the "Kingdom of Saba" confirming he
also knew the existence of the "Land of the Red Jews", and
another irrefutable proof is that having read Marco Polo, and being
so interested in arriving to Catigara and Cipango's richness didn't
select at least some Asian companions or with knowledge of Chinese,
Japanese, Mongolian, tartar or other Asian languages to communicate
in the Lands of the Great Khan where he went supposedly as an ambassador.
Stupid and absolutely false arguments that in that time there weren't
in Europe, but rather he requested the Queen for the prisoners that
were in the dungeons of the castles, the Jewish and Moorish convicts
to death that refused to convert or emigrate, surely because of their
knowledge of Hebrew, Arabic, Aramaic, etc. But the history says that
the prisoners were thieves and murderers.
..... It's known by a letter that the Admiral
sends to his financier Luis de Santángel that is conserved, in
which he informs him the case of the sailors, Luis Torres, Jew converted
and Rodrigo of Jerez walked three days finding many populations and
on their return Torres informs Columbus that his knowledge of Hebrew,
Aramaic and Arabic to communicate with the native was useless. Regarding
Columbus many authors affirm his Jewish origin, among them, S. De Madariaga,
B. Graiver, S. Wiesenthal, J. Wassermann and others.
..... The Spanish Crown gives the Admiral
an ordinance willing not to perform and the Admiral gives the Spanish
Crown false arguments to achieve his objectives. And starting from these
lies competition our certain history is written.
..... Columbus knows that Marino had 240º
that is 120º less to complete the terrestrial sphere.
..... This space is inside the Sinus Magnus
including the Oriental Indies (America) and it corresponds to the 120º
that Marino de Tiro miss and the 180º that Ptolemy misses to complete
the terrestrial sphere
..... This is the space where M. Polo places
Cipango, and other authors placed Ophir, Tarsis, Thule, Ostrúmides,
Espérides, Sephora, and many other islands or mysterious lands.
.....It should be considered that in Europe
where anyone could arrive by land, the Nordic peninsula was considered
and figured in maps like an island, it becomes evident that no navigator
could have surrounded its contour to give such data to the geographers
that considered it this way because of being a not very well-known region
(see the Pertotum Circulum map >>
..... This isn't strange, repeatedly they
made it with distant and not very well-known places that were part of
a great continent that they ignored as such, or that in defect they
hid to avoid that others went in search of the wealth of those places.