of Ptolemy's Geography book
Claudio Ptolemy geographer from Alexandria was born two centuries later
than Marino de Tiro, of whom he based to carry out his geography.
..... It is very important to read the geography written by the geographer
Claudio Ptolemy that has not been deeply studied and sometimes not well
interpreted. Inevitably, it becomes necessary to reinterpret Ptolemy
in some parts that don't seem to be very clear such as:
a) Ptolemy speaks
of the geography written by Marino de Tiro, on which is based to write
his own, but he doesn't say that he has had a direct and personal
contact with him. The characters named by Marino are not, "a
certain" but important and well-known persons at that time as,
Alejandro, Diógenes, Flaccus, Theophilus, Philemón,
Dioscorus, etc, which Ptolemy seems to ignore
b) Ptolemy names a certain Alexander. That Alexander is not another
that Alexander the Great, and Marino speaks of what Alexander writes
about his sailings to Catigara, and also, versions on the sailings
of Alexander the Great to Catigara, transmitted by Macedonian navigators
as Titian, and he doesn't say that Marino has had personal contact
with Alexander the Great.
c) Although Ptolemy's maps are carried out in 180ª habitable,
they don't represent a plain earth as many believe. If we took a closer
look at the maps we can see that they are drawn representing a curved
surface, it demonstrates how the meridians close on the pole and the
fact that their mensuration is carried out in grades. (See Ptolemy
spherical geography Almagesta)
d) Ptolemy reduces in about 45ª Marino's de Tiro geography that
was of 225ª. Unfortunately no copy of this geography has been
kept, to be able to clarify Ptolemy's confusions
e) The sailing to Saba that Ptolemy divides in two are the 40 days
that wisely Sarmiento de Gamboa mentions. Keeping in mind that 40
days and 40 nights lasted the flood, Moses was 40 years in the desert
in exodus, 40 days Jesus was fasting in the desert, 40 were the thieves
of Alí Babá's band, etc, etc. That demonstrates that
forty was used as a representation for many, as a quantity without
exactitude, but not impossible to count like Ptolemy's interpretation.
some of Ptolemy's geography.
..... In the first book, in chapter XIV
in relationship, to the trip from the Quersonesus of Gold (Malaca) to
Cattigara. It tells us that:
"Marino doesn't speaks of the number of courses between the
Golden Chersonesus and Cattigara. Alexander wrote that the bank line
extends toward the south, and that navigating along it, after twenty
days arrived to Zaba and then south and toward the left, after some
days you arrive Cattigara."
..... This paragraph deserves a special
attention since it clarifies that Alexander the Great writes about his
trips to Saba and Catigara, writings that are missing, the same as Marino's
de Tiro geography.
..... It is not clear from what place of
Quersonesus of Gold (Malaca) must be navigated twenty days towards south
to arrive Saba, direction is mistaken, confused quantities of days of
sailing. I believe that the interpretation is, navigate many days on
the Equinocial line (Equatorial) toward the sunrise, up to Saba and
then some days south, and then left, you arrive Catigara.
In the seventh book of charts of localizations on the twelfth map with
respect to the island of Trapobana (Ceylan) says:
"Saba 135º of longitude 0º latitude, Ecuador"
..... But according to the geography report,
to arrive to Saba the departure is from "Aureo Chersonesus"
(Malaca) which is a lot further than the 135º of Trapobana (Ceylon),
and it clarifies that Saba is 8º to the north of Cattigara, then
the longitude of Saba has to be 175º and not 135º. This leads
us to: that the geographers that carried out the reconstructions of
Ptolemy's maps, fifteen centuries later copied the mistake in the charts
of localizations, having to create a small island that doesn't exist,
in the Indian Ocean, near Trapobana (Ceylan), to be able to place Saba
in the mistaken 135º of longitude.
..... Marino reduces the size of the earth
in 135º making his geography only 225º of longitude and Ptolemy
reduces Marino in 45º more, that is an ecumene of only 180º
of longitude, although these changes don't vary the latitude that stays
equally, the distances vary in longitude that is why Ptolemy cannot
specify distances neither times of sailing to Catigara.
Map 1474 of the Apostolic Library of the Vatican. Author: Donnus
analysis of the Geographer Claudio Ptolemy, demonstrates he was influenced,
on the obscure ideas imposed by Rome.
..... Christopher Columbus is the first
one in interpreting correctly Claudio Ptolemy and many others, as it
is expressed by his son Hernando Columbus that is one of the fundamental
causes that allows him to achieve the success of his career.
..... In the map drawn by Lopo Homen and
Pedro Reinel in 1519, we see how 27 years after Columbus, they locate
"Zaba Flu" (Rio Saba) in the South American coast, the same
coast where Ptolemy locates Catigara south of Saba, that shows us Ptlomey's
knowledge of geography, also where was placed "Parioco Flu"
(Rio Pariah), demonstrating that the supposed discovery of America was
not enough to confuse or disorient them, as later happened with some
other ones until today
of the Bay of Ecuador in four maps
of Nicolaus Germanus 1474
of Henricus Martellus Germanus 1489
of Lopo Homen and Pedro Reinel 1519
the seventh book of charts of localization's the eleventh map with respect
to Sinae (China), in the Sinus Magnus, Ptolemy says:
"Ambastus 177º of longitude 10º of north latitude.
Cattigara 177º of longitude 8º 30' of south latitude. Fondeadero
de los Chinos.
Boca del Rio Cutiaris 177º of longitude 7º of south latitude.
Place where the Ethiopians Hicthiófagos live (fish eaters)"
..... Attention must be paid that some other
authors had not recognized the Ethiopians Hictiófagos, being
these of fundamental importance
..... The Ethiopia of the Red Sea, of the
Amharics, is the one that interests us for the case, the one that maintained
relationships with Egypt and the Kingdom of Judá since time existed,
the Ethiopia of the colored Jews, those of the promontories of Aromata,
Rapta or Prasum, in oriental Africa, according to Ptolemy, they left
sailing through the Indian Ocean, some going by Madagascar, up to Golden
Chersonesus (Malaca) and from there crossing the Pacific Ocean, up to
Saba, Catigara, Ambato, River Cutiaris, etc. in "Oriental Indies",
passing by the big and small islands of Oceania where they left their
discovery of America in these precolumbus maps would explain the existence
of some polemic maps. In the book of P. Guirao "The enigma of the
maps of Piri Reis" Editions Express Book of Spain, in Chapter IV
"..... Charles H. Hapgood compares the map of Andreas Walsperger
1448 (which is a fabric of stupidities) with the portulano of
Dulcert 1399 that the Mediterranean is represented in evidently exact
..... Unfortunately for this author, he doesn't see that is A. Walsperger
the one that gives him the key to enter into the mystery of Piri Reis
with his map, and that the one he considers "a fabric of stupidities",
consists of a representation of America in a precolumbus map with which
it can confirm the hypothesis, of a very old knowledge of America, without
necessity of appealing the martians.
..... Another polemic map is the Vinland, bought by the University of
Yale, and beyond the millionaire price that it was paid, and how it's
authenticity is questioned, I believe that the achievement of this map,
perfect in 1440, but mistakenly called the "first map of America".
In Germany, Kirstein Seaver a studious on the topic, says that the "authenticity
of the map would be as the Virgin's Conception, since there is no tradition
behind it", and says that it could be falsified in the decade of
1930 by the Friar Jesuit Joseph Fischer in the castle of Wolfgang where
he taught history.
But it is
not certain that the tradition that accompanies this map, doesn't exist
since we have treated the association of German monks that drew maps
from times previous to Columbus, among those, are the three maps where
all of America is represented, 1440, 1448 and 1470 that suggestively
were also drawn by religious in the same region.
..... If Vinland's map (1440) was not really
authentic, but a realization of Fr. Fischer, it would not be a falsification
but a well made copy or reconstruction of older original documents,
the same as all the precolumbus maps drawn by German monks those that
I referred, demonstrating and confirming this way the existence in Germany
of old documentation that has not been found yet, which was used for