Cover of Ptolemy's Geography book

Surely Claudio Ptolemy geographer from Alexandria was born two centuries later than Marino de Tiro, of whom he based to carry out his geography.
..... It is very important to read the geography written by the geographer Claudio Ptolemy that has not been deeply studied and sometimes not well interpreted. Inevitably, it becomes necessary to reinterpret Ptolemy in some parts that don't seem to be very clear such as:

a) Ptolemy speaks of the geography written by Marino de Tiro, on which is based to write his own, but he doesn't say that he has had a direct and personal contact with him. The characters named by Marino are not, "a certain" but important and well-known persons at that time as, Alejandro, Diógenes, Flaccus, Theophilus, Philemón, Dioscorus, etc, which Ptolemy seems to ignore
b) Ptolemy names a certain Alexander. That Alexander is not another that Alexander the Great, and Marino speaks of what Alexander writes about his sailings to Catigara, and also, versions on the sailings of Alexander the Great to Catigara, transmitted by Macedonian navigators as Titian, and he doesn't say that Marino has had personal contact with Alexander the Great.
c) Although Ptolemy's maps are carried out in 180ª habitable, they don't represent a plain earth as many believe. If we took a closer look at the maps we can see that they are drawn representing a curved surface, it demonstrates how the meridians close on the pole and the fact that their mensuration is carried out in grades. (See Ptolemy spherical geography Almagesta)
d) Ptolemy reduces in about 45ª Marino's de Tiro geography that was of 225ª. Unfortunately no copy of this geography has been kept, to be able to clarify Ptolemy's confusions
e) The sailing to Saba that Ptolemy divides in two are the 40 days that wisely Sarmiento de Gamboa mentions. Keeping in mind that 40 days and 40 nights lasted the flood, Moses was 40 years in the desert in exodus, 40 days Jesus was fasting in the desert, 40 were the thieves of Alí Babá's band, etc, etc. That demonstrates that forty was used as a representation for many, as a quantity without exactitude, but not impossible to count like Ptolemy's interpretation.

..... Let's see some of Ptolemy's geography.
..... In the first book, in chapter XIV in relationship, to the trip from the Quersonesus of Gold (Malaca) to Cattigara. It tells us that:
"Marino doesn't speaks of the number of courses between the Golden Chersonesus and Cattigara. Alexander wrote that the bank line extends toward the south, and that navigating along it, after twenty days arrived to Zaba and then south and toward the left, after some days you arrive Cattigara."
..... This paragraph deserves a special attention since it clarifies that Alexander the Great writes about his trips to Saba and Catigara, writings that are missing, the same as Marino's de Tiro geography.
..... It is not clear from what place of Quersonesus of Gold (Malaca) must be navigated twenty days towards south to arrive Saba, direction is mistaken, confused quantities of days of sailing. I believe that the interpretation is, navigate many days on the Equinocial line (Equatorial) toward the sunrise, up to Saba and then some days south, and then left, you arrive Catigara.
In the seventh book of charts of localizations on the twelfth map with respect to the island of Trapobana (Ceylan) says:

"Saba 135º of longitude 0º latitude, Ecuador"
..... But according to the geography report, to arrive to Saba the departure is from "Aureo Chersonesus" (Malaca) which is a lot further than the 135º of Trapobana (Ceylon), and it clarifies that Saba is 8º to the north of Cattigara, then the longitude of Saba has to be 175º and not 135º. This leads us to: that the geographers that carried out the reconstructions of Ptolemy's maps, fifteen centuries later copied the mistake in the charts of localizations, having to create a small island that doesn't exist, in the Indian Ocean, near Trapobana (Ceylan), to be able to place Saba in the mistaken 135º of longitude.
..... Marino reduces the size of the earth in 135º making his geography only 225º of longitude and Ptolemy reduces Marino in 45º more, that is an ecumene of only 180º of longitude, although these changes don't vary the latitude that stays equally, the distances vary in longitude that is why Ptolemy cannot specify distances neither times of sailing to Catigara.

Ptolemy's Map 1474 of the Apostolic Library of the Vatican. Author: Donnus Nicolaus Germanus

.....This analysis of the Geographer Claudio Ptolemy, demonstrates he was influenced, on the obscure ideas imposed by Rome.
..... Christopher Columbus is the first one in interpreting correctly Claudio Ptolemy and many others, as it is expressed by his son Hernando Columbus that is one of the fundamental causes that allows him to achieve the success of his career.
..... In the map drawn by Lopo Homen and Pedro Reinel in 1519, we see how 27 years after Columbus, they locate "Zaba Flu" (Rio Saba) in the South American coast, the same coast where Ptolemy locates Catigara south of Saba, that shows us Ptlomey's knowledge of geography, also where was placed "Parioco Flu" (Rio Pariah), demonstrating that the supposed discovery of America was not enough to confuse or disorient them, as later happened with some other ones until today

Comparison of the Bay of Ecuador in four maps
Map of Nicolaus Germanus 1474
Map of Henricus Martellus Germanus 1489
Map of Lopo Homen and Pedro Reinel 1519
Current map

.....In the seventh book of charts of localization's the eleventh map with respect to Sinae (China), in the Sinus Magnus, Ptolemy says:
"Ambastus 177º of longitude 10º of north latitude.
Cattigara 177º of longitude 8º 30' of south latitude. Fondeadero de los Chinos.
Boca del Rio Cutiaris 177º of longitude 7º of south latitude. Place where the Ethiopians Hicthiófagos live (fish eaters)"

..... Attention must be paid that some other authors had not recognized the Ethiopians Hictiófagos, being these of fundamental importance
..... The Ethiopia of the Red Sea, of the Amharics, is the one that interests us for the case, the one that maintained relationships with Egypt and the Kingdom of Judá since time existed, the Ethiopia of the colored Jews, those of the promontories of Aromata, Rapta or Prasum, in oriental Africa, according to Ptolemy, they left sailing through the Indian Ocean, some going by Madagascar, up to Golden Chersonesus (Malaca) and from there crossing the Pacific Ocean, up to Saba, Catigara, Ambato, River Cutiaris, etc. in "Oriental Indies", passing by the big and small islands of Oceania where they left their steps.
.....The discovery of America in these precolumbus maps would explain the existence of some polemic maps. In the book of P. Guirao "The enigma of the maps of Piri Reis" Editions Express Book of Spain, in Chapter IV says:
"..... Charles H. Hapgood compares the map of Andreas Walsperger 1448 (which is a fabric of stupidities) with the portulano of Dulcert 1399 that the Mediterranean is represented in evidently exact way."
..... Unfortunately for this author, he doesn't see that is A. Walsperger the one that gives him the key to enter into the mystery of Piri Reis with his map, and that the one he considers "a fabric of stupidities", consists of a representation of America in a precolumbus map with which it can confirm the hypothesis, of a very old knowledge of America, without necessity of appealing the martians.
..... Another polemic map is the Vinland, bought by the University of Yale, and beyond the millionaire price that it was paid, and how it's authenticity is questioned, I believe that the achievement of this map, perfect in 1440, but mistakenly called the "first map of America". In Germany, Kirstein Seaver a studious on the topic, says that the "authenticity of the map would be as the Virgin's Conception, since there is no tradition behind it", and says that it could be falsified in the decade of 1930 by the Friar Jesuit Joseph Fischer in the castle of Wolfgang where he taught history.

Fr. John Fisher
Map Vinland

..... But it is not certain that the tradition that accompanies this map, doesn't exist since we have treated the association of German monks that drew maps from times previous to Columbus, among those, are the three maps where all of America is represented, 1440, 1448 and 1470 that suggestively were also drawn by religious in the same region.
..... If Vinland's map (1440) was not really authentic, but a realization of Fr. Fischer, it would not be a falsification but a well made copy or reconstruction of older original documents, the same as all the precolumbus maps drawn by German monks those that I referred, demonstrating and confirming this way the existence in Germany of old documentation that has not been found yet, which was used for these realizations.